Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Causes of Challenging Behavior Essay Example for Free
The Causes of Challenging Behavior Essay Dealing with children with challenging behavior has been a source of major problems amongst educators. The depth of the problem and the difficulty of dealing with students with challenging behavior have caused some schools and other educators to not properly address the trouble, hence resulting for the childÃ¢â¬â¢s expulsion or transfer from one school to another (Laursen and Peterson, 2005). This research will then seek to identify the causes and other risk factors that led to the development of Challenging Behavior and other related cognitive and behavioral concerns. Challenging Behavior: A Definition The Center for Evidence Based Practice (2007) defined challenging behavior as Ã¢â¬Å"any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in pro-social interactions with peers and adultsÃ¢â¬ . In relation with this, Emerson (1995) has added the role of culture on a development of a so-called Ã¢â¬Å"abnormal behaviorÃ¢â¬ . Also, the element of success in school and other academic related activity was also cited by Grady (2007) as significantly related on the notion of challenging behavior. Environmental Factors One of the primary causes of challenging behavior among children is maternal depression (Douglas, 1989 p. 8). Studies showed that 30% of mothers during the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s to the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s revealed symptoms of melancholy. More specifically, a link between maternal depression and challenging behaviors of children proved to be one of the very vital risk factors. In addition, the notion of irresponsible parenting was claimed by Douglas (1989) as may be a result of a bad relationship with parents or with significant others. The role of the father in developing the behavior of the child is very crucial as studies showed that those fathers who exhibit characters of Ã¢â¬Å"personal disturbance, aggressive and anti-social behaviorsÃ¢â¬ produced a significant effect on the children (p. 8). In addition, the difficult attitude of the father could also lead to a poor communication process that could further lead to minute cooperation and in the long run, irresponsible parenting. The study of Brown et al (1978) as cited from Douglas (1989) revealed four Ã¢â¬Å"Vulnerability FactorsÃ¢â¬ that could be related to depression. The first factor is perceived as the death of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mother before the age of 11; the second factor was with regard to the absence of a Ã¢â¬Å"confiding relationshipÃ¢â¬ with the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s significant others. The third was the lack of a professional career that would allow the mother to go to work, relate with other people and experience other things; and finally, those mothers who have three or more children who are all below 14 years old. Brown et al revealed that a significant 42% of Ã¢â¬Å"depression rateÃ¢â¬ was seen amongst mothers who have children who are all below 6 years of age. Barnes et al (1998) as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association (2002) have identified the role of parental illness as also one of the major determining factors for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development of a challenging behavior. Some of the emotional dispositions of the mother that might have caused such is anxiety, depression and other negative emotional bursts that might have affect on the ability of the latter to take care of their children. In effect of this, a child may experience sadness, fear, loneliness and anger. The aggregation of these negative emotions in addition to the illness that is currently being experienced by the mother adds a lot on the distress and negative behavior that a child might exhibit. Corollary with this is the cause of family separation or divorce (Amato, 2002) (Pagain, 1997) as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association (2002). Amato and Pagain claimed that when compared from children who have a relatively better family setting, a child who has a broken family has more risks of developing challenging behaviors. In relation with this, Richman (1978) as cited from Douglas (1989) claimed that maternal depression is also associated on poor marriage; but virtually found no correlation at all to the role of relatives and friends in the curing of their depression. As such Douglas (1989) argued that it might be the case that the participants who are within the study of Richman have a relatively healthy relationship with their relatives and friends; however, such a relationship still cease to be a factor that could contribute to the well being of the mother until a healthy relationship on the significant other is established (Douglas, 1989, p. 9). The case of the child named June could be significantly related to this problem (Peterson, 2005). June is a 15 year-old female which has been diagnosed with bi-polar disorder and ADHD. In addition with this, she has also been perceived as having a relatively low IQ. June has been experiencing problems in terms of dealing with her peers and also her teachers and school administrators. She has been getting her self into fights, using profanity and frequently shouts at her teachers. On one of the sessions of June to Peterson (2005), she revealed that she recognize the fact that it could be possible that the effect of her momÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with another man who eventually her step father has also influenced her attitude. In one of the incidents June admitted that her most recent tantrum resulted due to watching a movie that reminded her of the bad incident that happened to her and to her step sister. She claimed that there was this time wherein some men on their place have been using some Ã¢â¬Å"chemicalsÃ¢â¬ . At that time, her step sister became intoxicated and was later on sexually abused by those men. In addition, June herself claimed that she was also raped (Peterson, 2005). The role of marital relationship has been perceived as one of the major factors in shaping child behavior, however McLean (1976) as cited from Douglas (1989, p. 9) argued that there are a relatively few number of parents who are willing to undergo marriage guidance for the sake of their children. In relation with this, the Michigan Non Profit Association (2002) claimed that another reason for the emerging of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s challenging behavior could be a result of the relationship between the custodial parent and the child. More specifically, the absence of the custodial parent further makes things more difficult for the child since the latter has usually more attachment to his or her biological mother or father. Other cases such as financial difficulties also emerge on the picture as some parents failed to provide the needs of their children as a result of single parenthood or irresponsibility. The role of environmental stress such as poor housing and poverty has also been asserted by Douglas (1989) and Michigan Non Profit Association (2002) as a contributing factor on challenging behavior. The study made by Richman (1978) as cited from Douglas (1989) revealed the relationship of the type of abode to the development of challenging behavior. Richman claimed that there is a high depression rate that could be seen among children who are living in tower blocks. More specifically, those mothers who reside starting from the fourth floor and higher revealed a relatively high risk factor. The physical conditions of the rooms up stairs have been perceived to be the cause of the problem. Richman (1978) claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"damp housing conditions, lack of electricity or hot water, and overcrowdingÃ¢â¬ (p. 9) also add to the depression that a mother experiences. In addition, majority of the mothers who experience depression are those who are with pre-school children who are unsupported and who are living in single bedsits (Richman as cited from Douglas 1989). In addition, Richman argued that such a type of disposition has further added on the depression that a mother experiences. However Richman as cited from Douglas (1989) made it clear that the abode per se does not directly influenced the behavior of the child, rather the amount of depression that is being experienced by the parent. If a particular mother perceived that she is being demoralized because of the type of her abode and its conditions, therefore she will certainly feel depressed and pass on this depression to her child. In addition to the amount of depression, a parent may also feel angry about her situation. In effect of this, the mother will slowly cut her relationship with her child, lost her patience easily; scrap her self out of enthusiasm and totally let her self fully bothered with her problems and deprive her child of proper care. In addition, Richman also made a point that some mothers who live in depressed areas do not necessarily exhibit depressing behaviors. He maintained that the treatment of a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s problem is completely relative to the perceiver.